The UNIX operating system is case sensitive. In general, commands in UNIX are lower case. Commands can include three parts: a command, an option, and an argument.
- A command is a word or group of characters that UNIX recognizes as a request to perform a specific task.
- An option, as the name implies, is not mandatory. Options give extra functions to a command; they are always preceded by a dash (-).
- An argument is a variable supplied by the user. Often, it represents the name of a file or directory targeted for action.
For example, the UNIX command
ls -l first.file uses the command
ls to request a listing, the option
l to specify a long
listing, and the argument
first.file to only list information about the file named
Customizing Your Unix Environment
- Aliases allow you to define a shortcut for a command or
series of commands.
- Customization allows you to set parameters for
your shell and
set setenv source
- Finger allows you to check the user information for an
General Account Usage
- Printing from your Unix account.
lpr lpq lprm enscript printers file
- Process Control allows you to list and manage
processes running under your
ps kill bg fg stop jobs
- Quota manages the limits placed on the amount of disk
space you can use. Commands allow
you to check your current usage and quota.
quota ls du
File and Directory Commands
- Directory commands allow you to create, remove, and
navigate UNIX directories.
ls mkdir rmdir rm cd pwd cp mv pushd popd dirs
- File commands allow you to create, remove, and view files in
ls rm mv cp more less cat file diff
- File and Directory Permissions allow you to add/remove access to files and
directories in your account for other users.
- Access Control Lists allow you to give specific users (one or
more) access to a single
file and/or directory in your account.
File Compression and Transfer
- Tar is a file archiving command that allows you to bundle a
number of files and/or
directories together into a single file that can be easily transferred between computers.
- File Compression allows you to reduce the size of a
file for storage or
compress uncompress pack unpack zip unzip gzip gunzip zcat zmore
zdiff zcmp gzexe zgrep
- File Transfer commands allow you to move files between
ftp kermit xyzmodem rcp
Text File Searching and Manipulation
- Grep commands allow you to search text files for a
particular expression (text string).
grep agrep egrep fgrep zgrep
- Filtering Text Files can be used to retrieve, replace or
remove certain text strings in a
UNIX file or group of files.
awk sed grep