To use Mathematica on UNIX, first source the Mathematica setup file in a SSH program of your choice using the command:

`source /usr/usc/math/default/setup.csh`

Then type the command **math** at the UNIX prompt to start Mathematica in text mode or type the command **mathematica** to start Mathematica with the graphical notebook interface.

## Printing or Saving Graphics with Mathematica for UNIX

To print or save graphics output use the `Display`

command to create an output file. Mathematica allows you to generate a number of different output file types. For general use (printing and use in other applications), the encapsulated postscript (EPS) format is recommended. To create an EPS file use the `Disiplay`

command as shown in the following example. When the output of a command is graphics (i.e. `Out[9]:= --graphics--`

), use `Display["output.eps", %9, "EPS"]`

to create the file `output.eps`

in the directory you started Mathematica from. You can then print the postscript file from Mathematica using the command `!lpr output.eps`

(note, the explanation mark (!) acts as a shell escape).

## Put and Get Commands (Opening and Saving Files)

To read a file into Mathematica use the `Get[" filename "]`

command or the special input command form `<< filename`

. From the UNIX prompt if you invoke Mathematica with the command `math -record filename`

a record of the session will be stored to the file called `filename`

. You can also save an expression definition to a file with the `Put[ expr , " filename "] (expr >>filename )`

and `PutAppend[ expr , " filename "] (expr >>> filename )`

commands.

## Mathematica Programs (scripts) and Packages

Mathematica also allows you to write scripts and define functions in external text files. All of the commands that we have discussed can by used to write a script with your favorite editor along with other looping and logical operators similar to many programming languages. Mathematica supports a number of packages that are extensions of the main application designed to assist the user in working with a certain group/family of problems. At USC, we have several Mathematica Packages that can found in the directory:

`/usr/usc/math/default/AddOns.`

Inside this directory you will find several subdirectories that list topics for the packages (PackageName). Inside each of the Mathematica Package directories you will find a number of files with an `.m`

extension. You can load a Mathematica Package file like any other file using the command `<< PackageName ' filename '`

For example, inside the `LinearAlgebra`

package within the `StandardPackages`

directory, there is a routine called Tridiagonal that could be loaded with the command `<< LinearAlgebra'Tridiagonal'`

.

## Exiting Mathematica for UNIX

To exit Mathematica, type `Exit`

or `Quit`

. After Mathematica begins the prompt will become `In[1]:=`

. For help you can type `? function`

where function is the name of a command. Mathematica will respond with a short description of the command. For example, `?Log`

would display information about the natural logarithm command. `??Log`

would include the description along with a line about the syntax. You can type `? letter(s) *`

if you are unsure about the name of the command. For example, `?L*`

would list all of the commands that begin with the letter L. It is important to note that Mathematica commands begin with capital letters.